The New Zealand Long and Efficient Service Medal was instituted in 1887 as The New Zealand Volunteer Long and Efficient Service Medal … it was awarded to non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the New Zealand Volunteers upon completion of 16 years continuous service … in 1891, the statutes of the award were amended to include Volunteer officers … further amendments were made in 1917 to cover Territorial officers who were permanently appointed to the New Zealand Staff Corps or Permanent Staff, and finally in 1920 to all members of the New Zealand Military Forces … the medal was originally suspended from a plain crimson ribbon … in 1917 two additional white centre stripes were added to differentiate the ribbon from other long service medals … names on awards up until 1921 were engraved in blackened upright or sloping capitals … after that date, awards were impressed in small capitals

■ Ribbon : white, crimson, white, crimson (very narrow stripe), white, crimson, white … ribbon attached to medal by ring

■ Obverse : in centre: Royal Crown superimposed over a crossed sword and taiaha (Maori long club) lying on a cushion with • N • Z • below and surrounded by fern fronds … loop suspension

■ Reverse : in centre: FOR LONG / AND / EFFICIENT SERVICE … below: hallmarks

■ Dimensions : 36.3 * 40.3 mm … ■ Weight : 29.1 g

■ Materials : silver